Massive MIMO Full-Duplex Relaying with Hardware Impairments
"Massive multiple-input-multiple-output full-duplex relaying
(MM-FDR), which exploits both the benefits of large-scale
antenna arrays and full-duplex transmission, is considered as a
promising technology to achieve very high spectral efficiency in
the future wireless network. Despite the inevitable presence of
transceiver impairments due to the use of low-cost hardware components,
most of the prior works on MM-FDR assume perfect
transceiver hardware which is unrealistic in practice. This paper
investigates the impact of hardware impairments on the MM-FDR.
Based on the recent experimental results, the effect of hardware impairments
is modeled using transmit and receive distortion noises.
The end-to-end achievable rate is derived and the scaling behaviors
of echo interference due to the full-duplex operation, multi-user
interference and effective distortions caused by hardware impairments
are obtained. The scaling results show that the achievable
rate of MM-FDR is limited by the hardware impairments at the
sources and destinations, instead of that at the relay or other interferences,
as the number of relay antenna tends to infinity. A
low-complexity power control scheme is proposed to further improve
the energy efficiency of MM-FDR with hardware impairments.
Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can improve
the spectral-energy efficiency tradeoff significantly."